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TALK Framework


Suggested triggers

During the implementation process of this tool, each team should identify and agree what situations will prompt its use. This will encourage use of the tool when the clinical outcomes are positive.


Suggested triggers include:

  • When team members are exposed to new clinical experiences.

  • When good outcomes are achieved in difficult clinical situations.

  • Near misses or serious untoward events.

  • Expected or unexpected patient morbidity/mortality.

  • Pre agreed departmental triggers, e.g. in an Emergency Department it might be agreed to use the tool in all cases of major trauma, patient death and paediatric resuscitation regardless of outcome or team performance. 

Recommendations for use of the framework


  • All clinical and non-clinical staff involved in patient care processes.

  • The whole team should be present whenever possible.

  • Any team member may prompt or initiate the feedback session.

  • Any team member familiar with the TALK© framework may act as a facilitator.

The feedback or debrief is a focused dialogue with a team or a team member.



To facilitate reflection, in a constructive and non-judgmental way.



Ideally it should take place in quiet and private areas within clinical environments, away from patients, such as office spaces, quiet rooms, or quiet coffee areas.



Immediately after a case, at the end of a clinical session or in due course, depending on circumstances.


It can be used for short focused discussion (no more than 10 minutes) or longer.

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